Ti-Indiffused LiNbO3 Optical Waveguides: A Range of Different Technologies

G. Assanto, S. Bonura, A. C. Cino, and C. Zizzo

Mat. Chem. Phys. 23, 408-415 (1989)


We outline the basic technological steps involved in the fabrication of Ti-indiffused slab optical waveguides in Y-cut LiNbO3 crystals. Cutting, polishing and cleaning of the crystals, RF sputtering and E-beam evaporation of titanium thin films, film thickness measurements and surface analysis, thermal diffusion and waveguide characterization are discussed. The solutions adopted to specific problems are presented. Results from the characterization of structures operating at 632.8 nm are also reported, in order to demonstrate the degree of control achieved in all the processes.